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Orð sem byrja á - L - (enska)

Lace

A delicate fabric that consists of an openwork design made of loops, braids, intertwined and twisted threads. Lace dates back to at least the late 1400's, however its origins are unknown. The thread used evolved from linen to silk and metallic gold to cotton. Its creation involved a designer, a pattern maker, and a lace maker, and the extensive time it took to create each fabric made it expensive. Because of this, only royalty wore it. Today, lace is widely associated with bridal applications, although different color laces have walked down runways too. There are several different ways that lace is produced including needle lace, bobbin lace, and crochet lace. Each production method has different characteristics and has the ability to create a unique pattern. These methods produce chantilly lace, guipure lace, and Venise Lace to name a few.

Uses:

  • bridal
  • fashion applications
  • trims
  • home decor

Pros:

  • fine
  • unique designs
  • elegant
  • drapable
  • sheer

Cons:

  • prone to snagging
  • expensive
  • dry clean only

Lacquer

A type of finish that alters or enhances the shine given to wood, plastic, and other surfaces. Lacquer can range from flat, matte and eggshell to satin, semi-gloss, and gloss. In Ancient India and other parts of Asian, lacquer was made using the lac bug. The bug produces shellac that varies in red to clear tones. Today, most lacquers are synthetically made.

Uses:

  • wood
  • plastic

Lamb Hides

A smooth buttery leather that is lightweight and overall comfortable to wear. Lamb hides are often considered the softest, thinnest, and most supple of animal skins. Since it is breathable, it is perfect for both summer and winter as it stays cool in the heat and warm in the cold.

Uses:

  • shoes
  • jackets
  • panels

Pros:

  • soft
  • supple
  • breathable
  • lightweight
  • has anti-bacterial qualities

Cons:

  • prone to tears
  • scratches easily
  • stretches out over time

Lamb's Wool

Sheared from a sheep of seven months, lamb's wool is characteristically soft and slippery in texture. Nothing is as soft as the first shear, allowing it to be a sought-after fiber. It is naturally breathable and insulating making it suitable for both winter and summer.

Uses:

  • sweaters
  • scarves
  • hats

Pros:

  • soft
  • slippery
  • elastic
  • resilient
  • insulating
  • breathable
  • lightweight

Cons:

  • dry clean only

Lamé

A woven that features thin ribbons of metallic fiber. It comes in an array of classic metallic tones such as silver, gold, and copper, or may come in a rainbow of colors.

Uses:

  • theatrical costumes
  • sci-fi costumes
  • evening gowns

Pros:

  • luminous

Cons:

  • may cause seam or yarn slippage

Laminated

A type of finish that adds a polymer film that gives the fabric more shine, durability, and water-resistant capabilities. It is mainly seen in raincoats.

Uses:

  • raincoats
  • outerwear

Pros:

  • shiny
  • durable
  • water-resistant

Lampas

Extremely luxurious, this fabric is made with a base weft of taffeta and a pattern weft that sits on top. It is most commonly seen as a silk, and is adorned by gold and silver threads. Lampas dates back to 1,000 C.E. It has a similar appearance to a brocade or jacquard.

Uses:

  • tapastry
  • waistcoats
  • upholstery

Laser-Cut

A manufacturing method that uses lasers to cut clean, accurate designs into fabric. This process also seals the fabric's edges to keep them from fraying. It may be used on everything from silk and cotton to neoprene and polyester.

Latex

A type of rubber used in clothing applications. It was first used for rain attire as it has water-repelling properties. Its color can vary and its weight usually lies between 0.18-0.5 mm. Latex sheets are weak allowing them to tear easily. This material is most commonly used for leotards, bodysuits, and gloves.

Uses:

  • rain boots
  • leotards
  • bodysuits
  • gloves

Pros:

  • bodyforming

Cons:

  • hard to put on
  • prone to tears

Lattice

A pattern or print in which stripes interlock and cross over one another to create a geometric design.

Lawn

A plain woven where a high thread count of fine combed or carded yarns creates a soft, smooth hand. Lightweight and sheer, it lies between a voile and an organdy in terms of crispness. Originally made of linen, it is now most commonly seen made of cotton. The fabric gets its name from Laon, France where it was originated.

Uses:

  • dresses
  • blouses
  • pajamas
  • curtains

Pros:

  • breathable
  • lightweight
  • semi-sheer
  • soft
  • smooth
  • drapable

Cons:

  • may require a lining

Leather

Dating as far back as 5,000 B.C., leather has been used to make everything from shoes to shelter. Leather has always been a byproduct of the meat, dairy, and wool industry. Around 50% of the total leather produced is used to create shoes, while smaller percentages create apparel and upholstery. Leather comes from the hides of cows, sheep, deer, alligator, and pig to name a few. Each type of leather has different qualities that make them useful in different applications. The process of creating the leather includes preservation, de-hairing, de-skinning, tanning, drying, dying, roll pressing and finishing the hide.

Uses:

  • outerwear
  • shoes
  • bags
  • notebook covers
  • upholstery
  • automobiles
  • accessories

Pros:

  • breathable
  • cool in summer
  • warm in winter
  • durable
  • easy to clean
  • fits to wearer

Cons:

  • expensive
  • may damage easily - especially in water

Ligne

A unit of measurement by the French that was originally used by watchmakers. German button makers began to use it for buttons during the 9th century. Lignes are also used to measure the width of hat bands. One Ligne is equal to 2.2558 mm.

Uses:

  • hats
  • watches
  • buttons

Linen

A natural fiber taken from the flax plant that can be measured anywhere between 25-150mm long. The word linen may refer to the fiber, a type of textured weave, or general home fabrics such as bedding, bath and kitchen cloths. The use of linen stems as far back as 8,000 B.C. Mummies were wrapped in linen as a symbol of wealth. The plainly woven fabric comes in various weights, is breathable and absorbent making it a go-to for warmer weather. It gets softer the more it is washed and worn. Linen is a naturally strong fiber. (see ramie)

Uses:

  • fashion applications
  • home decor

Pros:

  • good body
  • texture
  • retains water
  • gets stronger when wet
  • non-static
  • good thermal conductivity
  • high tenacity
  • no pilling

Cons:

  • poor drape
  • loft
  • poor resiliency
  • attract mildew when damp
  • susceptible to silverfish
  • not flexible
  • poor elasticity
  • poor dimensional stability
  • low luster
  • catches fire easily

Linings

A fabric used in the inner part of a garment, handbag, curtain, hat or other items. Depending on the desired outcome, different linings give the piece a different characteristic. For example, a fur lining may be added for warmth, and a silk lining may be added for shine and smoothness. On top of adding a wonderful hand to the piece, linings conceal raw hems, padding, and interfacing. Historically, solid color linings were the only linings used. It wasn't until Madeleine Vionnet began using linings to match coats with dresses that patterned fabrics became a popular choice too.

Uses:

  • garments
  • curtains
  • handbags

Liquid Dye

A dye in liquid form that is typically more concentrated than powder dyes. It is already evenly mixed allowing for an evenly dyed fabric. Since 34,000 B.C. fabrics have been dyed using natural materials such as plants and animals, and combined those with water to make liquid dyes. Today dyes are mostly synthetically made.

Liseré

Typically seen in a formal home decor setting, liseré is a type of weave that has a supplementary weft. The added weft yarns vary in color and are used to create a design. They are woven into the face to create the desired design and then get lightly tacked to the back of the fabric when not being used. Decorative stripes are commonly seen using this method. The fabric can also be described as a jacquard fabric usually made with a taffeta or faille ground.

Lizard Hides

Considered a rare leather, lizard hides have spaced pebble-like scales. The three main types of lizards used for apparel and accessories are Nile, Ring, and Teju since they can reach up to 3 square feet. Iguana leather was considered a luxury item up until the stock market crash and was primarily used for car interiors. The width of the hide can range from 0.4-0.6mm which allows them to be easy to work with.

Uses:

  • handbags
  • belts
  • car interiors
  • shoes

Pros:

  • easy to work with
  • exotic
  • tactile

Cons:

  • expensive

Llama

An animal that is bred for its wool. The fiber can range in color and coarseness. Llamas can be white, gray, black or various shades of brown. Their undercoat produces a fine yarn, while its outer coat is coarser. It is insulating like wool, however it doesn't carry the same elasticity.

Pros:

  • warm

Cons:

  • no elasticity

Loden Cloth

Made of wool, loden cloth is coarse, thick and heavy. It is mostly used for outerwear and is typically loden green in color where it gets its name.

Pros:

  • water-repellent
  • heavy
  • thick
  • warm

Cons:

  • coarse

Loft

A fiber or fabric with the ability to return to its original thickness after being compressed. The term is primarily used by quilters in regards to batting.

Longcloth

A plain woven fabric typically made of cotton known for its particularly long length. Throughout the 1900's it was used to create shirts and undergarments. Today it refers to a cotton that has been coarsely woven and presents a soft hand. It is mainly used to create children's clothing and underwear.

Uses:

  • shirts
  • undershirts
  • underwear
  • children's clothing

Pros:

  • soft
  • lightweight
  • drapable
  • thin
  • lightweight

Loom

A loom is used to create woven fabrics. It holds the warp yarns tightly to allow the weft yarns to interweave easily. Warp yarns are passed through heddles which are used to separate them evenly. The heddles are attached to a shaft vertically, which helps to lift alternating warp yarns. A harness controls which heddles move in order to create the desired weave pattern. This process is called shedding. The shuttle, which carries the weft yarn is then fed through. A comb-like piece called the reed then pushes the weft yarn against the fell (the previously woven part of the fabric). Looms can either be hand powered or machine powered. There are many types of looms that are used to produce specific weave patterns. The most popular are the jacquard loom and the dobby loom.

Loop Turner

A long metal rod with a looped end and a hook with a hinged piece (similar to the end of a knit picker) on the opposing side. This tool is used to create spaghetti straps and belts. It is fed through the sewn sleeve. The hook attaches to the end and is pulled inside turning it inside out. It may be used to hide the end of a thread into seams or to feed drawstrings through waistlines.

Lurex

A company that produces metallic threads. The threads are made out of a synthetic film that has a metallic color vaporized onto it. The threads can range in color but are most widely seen in classic metallic tones.

Uses:

  • fabric
  • trimming

Pros:

  • flexible
  • not affected by salt water
  • dye resistant
  • chemical resistant
  • strong

Cons:

  • should be dry cleaned
  • electrical conductor

Luster

A subtle sheen, or soft glow, that some fabrics possess. An example of this would be a satin.

Lycra

A stretch fiber created by DuPont and the U.S. Rubber Company during World War II as an alternative to rubber. Du Pont started manufacturing the fiber officially in 1962. The stretch fiber is altered just slightly from the original spandex, but carries the same elastic quality. An name for this fiber includes elastane.

Uses:

  • athletic wear
  • athleisure
  • bathing suits
  • fashion apparel
  • lingerie

Pros:

  • high elasticity

Cons:

  • wears over time
  • poor tenacity
  • poor abrasion resistance
  • heat sensitivity
  • bleach sensitivity

Lyocell

A type of rayon made of dissolved wood pulp. Similar to cotton, linen and ramie, it is soft, absorbent, strong and wrinkle resistant. Staple fibers of lyocell may be used in garments such as denim and casual wear, while longer staple fibers have a silkier hand for dressier pieces. Lyocell is typically more expensive to produce than cotton.

Pros:

  • hydrophilic
  • non-static
  • good thermal conductivity
  • good tenacity
  • good resiliency
  • high dimensional stability

Cons:

  • poor elasticity
  • attracts mold and mildew when damp

Lyons Velvet

Named after the city in France, this velvet is densely woven and has a heavy pile. Since it has a stiff drape, it is primarily used for hats and coat collars.

Uses:

  • hats
  • coats

Pros:

  • heavy
  • dense
  • soft
  • stiff