The word Jacobean refers to the reign of James I of England, and was given to the pattern because it gained popularity during this time. Originally seen in embroidery, the pattern featured animals, birds, flowers and nature motifs. Today, it primarily refers to a pattern that is a cross between a paisley and a floral.
Produced on a jacquard loom, the fabric is identified by its elaborate pattern. It is similar to a brocade, however, jacquards are reversible, displaying the inverse of the pattern on the opposing side. A jacquard may refer to a woven or knit fabric and features a pattern that varies in color and texture. Weaving jacquards were done by handlooms and were primarily made for royalty and the wealthy. It wasn't until 1804 that the jacquard loom was made, allowing the intricate designs to be created with greater ease.
A loom created by J.M. Jacquard in 1804. The original mechanism was attached to a power loom and used a series of punch cards that controlled the mechanism's order of operations to achieve the desired pattern. The punch card system was then used to create one of the first computers! It wasn't until 1983 that the Jacquard Loom became electronic. Among the fabric it can create are brocades, damasks, and matelassé.
Cotton was introduced in Japan during the 8th century. The fiber didn't gain popularity until the 16th century, however. Cotton grown in Japan has a luxuriously soft, fine and durable construction. Japanese cotton is primarily used to make shirting.
- may shrink
A type of knitting that hailed from Jersey, Channel Islands during the medieval times. It is a single knit that is often used to make t-shirts. The right side has lengthwise ribs (wales) and the wrong side has crosswise ribs (courses). Up until 1916 jersey was only used for undergarments. It wasn't until Coco Chanel used that fabric in one of her designs that it became what it is known as today. The knit is known for its stretch and fluid drape.
- wrinkled resistant
- curls at hems
- susceptible to unravelling
A type of dyeing machine that uses a technique safe enough for fine polyester fabrics. It uses less water than most dyeing techniques and takes less time. Fabrics are placed in the tubular chamber in rope form and rotated.
- less water
- less time
- crease marks
A mechanically woven originally made from Abaca or Banana Silk, but since the 1960's, it has been replaced by imported Silk Organza. A Barong Tagalog (or simply Barong) is an embroidered formal garment of the Philippines. Most barong are made of Pina Cloth or Jusi fabric. Jusi is stronger than the Pina Cloth, which is hand loomed and more delicate. However, pina cloth is more expensive than Jusi and is thus used for very formal events.
A vegetable fiber known for its long, shiny, and soft quality. It is the most affordable natural fiber next to cotton. Jute was traded by the British and used for military uniforms. England set up jute mills in Bengal during 1895, which quickly took over the Scottish mills, and became the number one supplier of the fiber. Jute (or Burlap once woven) is used in textiles for interiors, especially for wall hangings and a group of bright, homespun-effect draperies and wall coverings. Natural jute has a yellow to brown or gray color, with a silky luster. It consists of bundles of fiber held together by gummy substances that are pertinacious in character. Jute reacts to chemicals in the same way as do cotton and flax. Moisture increases the speed of deterioration, but dry jute will last for a very long time. Jute works well for bagging because it does not extend and is somewhat rough and coarse. This tends to keep stacks of bags in position and resist slippage. It is widely used in the manufacture of linoleum and carpets for backing or base fabric.
- carpet backing
- environmentally friendly
- resistant to microorganisms and insects