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Orð sem byrja á - S - (enska)

Sailcloth

A form of strong canvas or duck canvas used for boat sails, tents, upholstery, or clothing depending on the weight of the material. Heavier sailcloth is used for boat sails and tents, whilst medium to lightweight sailcloth is used for upholstery and clothing. Able to withstand the elements (rain, wind, and snow).

Uses:

  • boat sails
  • upholstery
  • • clothing

Pros:

  • inexpensive
  • breathable
  • durable
  • weather resistant

Cons:

  • fairly flammable

Sanforization

A process used primarily on cotton, as well as other fibers, where continuous stretching and shrinking occurs whilst applying heat to reduce the amount of shrinkage a fabric endures when washed after use. Also known as the anti-shrinkage finishing process.

Pros:

  • reduces shrinking

Sanglier

A closely woven fabric comprised of mohair or worsted wool to simulate the compact and wiry coat of a wild boar. Getting its name from the French word for boar.

Uses:

  • coats

Pros:

  • warm
  • durable

Cons:

  • rough texture

Sateen

A fabric made with a satin weave structure, but from twisted staple fibers rather than filament fibers. Often seen produced from cotton or wool. Contains a duller luster than satin fabrics but better qualities are mercerized to give a higher sheen.

Uses:

  • shirts
  • dresses
  • skirts
  • suiting combinations

Pros:

  • wrinkle resistant
  • dull luster

Cons:

  • prone to pilling
  • does not breathe well

Satin

A fabric composed of filament fibers such as silk or polyester where four or more fill or weft yarns float over a warp yarn, followed by four warp yarns floating over a single weft yarn repetitively. Characteristically recognized from its smooth lustrous face.

Uses:

  • dresses
  • skirts
  • gowns
  • suiting combinations

Pros:

  • smooth
  • sleek
  • lustrous

Cons:

  • does not breathe well
  • slippery when sewing
  • not machine washable

Satin Faconne

A form of satin created using a jacquard weaving process.

Uses:

  • skirts
  • dresses
  • gowns
  • jackets

Pros:

  • ornate
  • elegant

Cons:

  • does not breathe well
  • slippery when sewing
  • frays easily

Satin-Back

A textile with a satin-weave surface on the back and any variation of weaves on the front used in reversible fabrics.

Pros:

  • smooth
  • sleek
  • lustrous

Cons:

  • does not breathe well

Satin-Back Crépe

A reversible fabric with a satin weave on one side and a crepe weave on the other. Contains a higher drapability than your average satin fabric.

Uses:

  • blouses
  • dresses
  • evening gowns

Pros:

  • reversible
  • versatile
  • insulating

Cons:

  • doesn't breathe well

Saxony

A fine, soft wool fabric named for a Germanic tribe that used to reside on the north coast of Germany. The fabric directly derived from the wool of sheep residing there.

Uses:

  • suitings
  • blazers
  • sportscoats
  • scarves
  • carpeting

Pros:

  • soft
  • durable
  • wears well

Screen Printing

The process of forcing ink through a screen made from a fine material with a designated design within it to create a desired pattern. First used in China around 221 AD, when the stencils were cut from paper and the screens were created from human hair. (Also see Rotary Printing)

Uses:

  • printing

Pros:

  • long-lasting
  • cost-effective for larger print jobs
  • can be done on a multitude of grounds

Cons:

  • complex printing process
  • not practical for small productions
  • price increases with number of colors involved
  • not environmentally friendly

Scroll Prints

An ornamental pattern, print or design involving sprials resembling a scroll or partly rolled parchment.

Scuba Knits

A form of neoprene foregoing its rubber layer, produced with a double knit construction. May also be seen with a layer of air cushioning replacing neoprene's characteristically rubber core. The two layers of material create a semi-fluid drape and a soft, fairly sleek hand.

Uses:

  • dresses
  • tops
  • costuming

Pros:

  • good elasticity

Cons:

  • not waterproof

Sea Island Cotton

A fine-quality, long staple cotton fiber grown on islands off the southern United States. First cultivated in 1790 by William Elliot, it quickly became the highest quality cotton in the American market. The fabric was originally made from the “Gossypium Barbadense” plant, which is the predecessor to the strand from which lustrous Egyptian cotton is made.

Uses:

  • pillow stuffing
  • bedding
  • shirts
  • dresses

Pros:

  • durable
  • soft
  • higher luster than most cottons

Cons:

  • expensive

Seam Ripper

A tool used for removing stitching from the seams of a garment, often with a sharp point. The crux between that sharp point and the shorter ball point is a beveled blade used to cut the thread. It is speculated that the first patented design of the seam ripper used today was made around 1898 by a Canadian man named John Fisher.

Uses:

  • ripping seams
  • tailoring

Seativa

Fiber derived from seaweed and lyocell. Full of trace minerals, vitamins and amino acids. This composition of material is thought to have some positive health benefits for skin. Due to seaweed fiber being water soluble, it is combined with a stronger fiber, often eucalyptus cellulose to act as a substrate and help the fiber hold composition.

Uses:

  • knitwear
  • underwear
  • sleep wear
  • casual sport wear

Pros:

  • hydrophilic
  • non-static
  • good thermal conductivity
  • antioxidant properties
  • anti-flammatory agent
  • soft
  • high luster

Cons:

  • one of the more expensive eco-fabrics in production

Seersucker

A light breathable fabric woven in such a way that bunched threads cause the fabric to rise off of the skin. This texture is created from a slack tension weave which is a process produced by alternating slack and tight yarns in the warp. The texture is permanent. Seersucker typically holds a trademark striped pattern and has a ‘wrinkled’ look which actually promotes breathability and circulation making this material a popular choice in the South. Commonly produced with cotton.

Uses:

  • suiting
  • dresses
  • shorts

Pros:

  • light
  • breathable
  • quick-drying
  • good for circulation

Cons:

  • susceptible to mildew

Selvage

The narrow edge produced on woven fabric during manufacturing that prevents it from unraveling. Runs along the warp of the fabric and is usually of stronger yarns or a denser construction than body of cloth.

Selvedge Denim

A form of denim differentiating from raw denim due to the trait of having tightly woven selvages, creating a cleaner look. Also referred to as Self-Edge Denim. Usually produced with shorter widths.

Uses:

  • jeans
  • jackets

Pros:

  • cleaner edges
  • durable
  • long lasting

Cons:

  • require more material per piece
  • more expensive than raw denim

Separating Zippers

A form of closure made of two sides of interlocking teeth that are not permanently joined to one another at either end. Most commonly used as a closure on hoodies and some athletic jackets.

Sequins

A shiny disk sewn as one of many onto one's clothes as an accent or decoration.

Uses:

  • decoration

Serge

A durable twill weave running from the lower left to the upper right of a fabric made of wool or worsted. The pronounced diagonal ribs on the front and back of the fabric have a smooth, hard finish that wears exceptionally well but will shine with use. An unfinished serge doesn't present as clear of a surface.

Uses:

  • military uniforms
  • coats
  • suiting

Pros:

  • luster
  • durability

Serpentine Crépe

A form of plainly woven fabric twisted threads in its fillling giving an effect similar to that of a crepe. Texture of the material is based on the size of the thread.

Uses:

  • kimonos

Sewing Machine Lubricants

A solution used on sewing machine motors where metal parts come into contact with one another. Also aids in protection against rust within the machine.

Shadow Stripes

A pattern consisting of vertical stripes with another stripe directly adjacent to it or bordering it, creating a shadow effect. Shadow stripes generally vary in width and usually consist of two or three different colors.

Shadowy Organdy

A lightweight, crisp and sheer fabric with a shadowy effect produced by printing one color repeatedly upon itself.

Uses:

  • skirts
  • dresses
  • shirts

Pros:

  • lightweight
  • sturdy drape

Shantung

A thin, lustrous fabric of a plain weave, characterized by a slightly irregular surface resulting from uneven and slubbed yarns. Originally made from tussah or silk waste. The slubs of a shantung typically run in the fillling direction and are finer and more regular than that of a dupioni.

Uses:

  • skirts
  • bridal gowns
  • jackets
  • cocktail dresses

Pros:

  • lustrous
  • structured
  • crispness

Cons:

  • poor resistance to sunlight
  • prone to oxidation
  • turns yellow when bleached

Sharkskin

A smooth, worsted twill fabric with a soft texture and a two-toned woven appearance. Alternates between white (or very light yarns) and colored yarns result in lines running diagonally to the left opposite to the twill lines in a "step" effect. Popular for both men's and women's businesswear. First appearing in fashion in the 1950s and gaining widespread popularity in the 1960s and 70s late. It later regained popularity with a brief resurgence in the popularity of 1960s fashion due to the television show Mad Men.

Uses:

  • suiting

Pros:

  • wonderful insulating properties
  • long-lasting
  • durable
  • sheds dirt regularly

Cons:

  • tends to yellow with age

Shahtush

One of the rarest and most expensive fabrics in the world, made of white, gray and silver hairs of wild goats, which makes the availability of this fabric very limited. Gets its name from the Persian word for "king of fine wools". Being that the wild goats used to make this fabric are officially endangered, the fabric is now illegal to own in most countries.

Uses:

  • shawls

Pros:

  • soft
  • luxurious

Cons:

  • illegal
  • •are
  • highly expensive

Sheer

The opposite of opaque. A sheer fabric is made using thin thread, a low thread count, or a low density knit resulting in a semi-transparent or transparent cloth. Examples of sheer fabrics include chiffon, organdy, voile and organza.

Uses:

  • drapery sheers
  • lingerie
  • bridal gowns

Pros:

  • lets light pass through it

Shell Buttons

A type of button closure made from the hard outer portion of a mollusk, typically in conjunction with Mother of Pearl.

Uses:

  • closures

Pros:

  • ornate
  • captivating

Cons:

  • more fragile than other types of button

Shepherd's Check

A pattern identified by its small, even-sized checkered pattern in alternating colors. Its differentiating factor setting it apart from a gingham is its distinctive twill weave.

Shetland

A soft, shaggy wool used to create twill fabric. So-called for its origin on the Shetland Islands off the coast of Scotland. Characteristically very lightweight and warm. This form of wool is the only non-food item to receive Protected Geographical Status.

Uses:

  • overcoats
  • sportscoats
  • sweaters

Pros:

  • lightweight
  • warm
  • soft

Cons:

  • can cause skin irritation

Shibori

The Japanese word for a variety of ways of embellishing textiles by shaping cloth and securing it before dyeing. Originating in the Edo period, it has lived on to this day in both its traditional form, as well as the modern pastime of Tie-Dye.

Shot

A fabric which is made up of silk, linen, or cotton that is woven from warp and weft yarns of two or more colors producing an iridescent appearance.

Shot Taffeta

A form of taffeta created using the shot weaving process, known for its iridescent qualities due to the pattern of weaving.

Uses:

  • Ballgowns
  • bridalwear
  • drapery

Pros:

  • lightweight
  • crisp
  • elegant

Cons:

  • prone to creasing
  • stains easily

Shoulder Pad

A spongy foam pad, often domed or conical in shape to add additional structure to as well as fill out the silhouette of any given garment. First gaining popularity in 1930, when they were worn by Joan Crawford in the film "Letty Lynton", the trend later moved on to military chic fashion during World War II. Also became popular for short sporadic times from the 1950s to the early 2010s thanks to the media and pop culture.

Uses:

  • jackets
  • blazers
  • tops

Shuttle

A boat-like device on a loom that is thrown back and forth between the warp threads, carrying the fillling yarn in a fast and relatively frequent manner to create a woven material. First invented in 1733 by John Kay, this weaving process gained popularity throughout the 1750s and on until the mid 20th century when newer, more efficient forms of looms were designed.

Silk

A natural protein fiber, also classified as a filament fiber, that is obtained from the cocoons of certain species of caterpillars. Silk is one of the oldest known textile fibers and, according to Chinese tradition, was used as long ago as the 27th century BC. Legend has it that chief wife of Emperor Huang Ti (2677-2597 B.C.) discovered silk when a cocoon dropped from a tree to her cup of tea, and Lady His-Ling drew out a long thread. The Chinese maintained a monopoly on silk production for thousands of years, exporting to the Middle East and Europe via the legendary Silk Road. It wasn’t until the time of the Crusades that Italy became known for its sericulture with France following closely behind. Silk is often characterized by its brilliant sheen, fine nature, strength, and absorbency.

Pros:

  • absorbs water
  • non-static
  • retains body heat
  • strongest natural fiber
  • flame retardant
  • good drapability
  • does not pill
  • high luster

Cons:

  • weaker when wet
  • poor dimensional stability
  • reacts poorly to bleach
  • poor resilience
  • perspiration weakens the fiber
  • attracts carpet beetles
  • sunlight damages fiber
  • poor abrasion resistance

Silk/Wool

A combination of silk and wool blended for the ideal combination of a pleasantly soft hand and heat retention. Most commonly found in fall and winter garments, giving the material a satiny finish without the trademark itchiness of your standard wool woven or knit.

Uses:

  • jackets
  • suiting
  • accessories

Pros:

  • warm
  • medium weight
  • less itchy than wool alone
  • anti-microbial

Cons:

  • prone to pilling and abrasion
  • dry clean only

Simulated Linen Fabrics

A style of fabric that is woven with threads of varying thicknesses to create the texture of linen. The major difference between a real linen and simulated linen is the tell-tale cool and firm, yet soft hand of authentic linen. The irregularities are also too even in simulated linen when compared with real linen. This material can be made with numerous fibers including but not limited to cotton, rayon blends, and full synthetics.

Uses:

  • home decor
  • costuming
  • summer fashion

Pros:

  • less prone to mildew when made from synthetics
  • variance in base material lends to a larger variety of uses

Cons:

  • doesn't feel like real linen
  • typically takes on the disadvantages of whatever the base material is

Sisal

The name given to a variety of natural fiber created from the leaves of specific plants. The plant is a member of the Agave family raised in two places predominantly, those locations being the Yucatan Peninsula and Java. Sisal can be dyed bright colors by way of both cotton dyes as well as acid dyes typically used for wools. It is an important material in the creation of ropes, mats, and carpeting.

Uses:

  • accessories
  • home decor
  • ropes

Pros:

  • good for sound insulation
  • durable
  • sustainable
  • anti-static properties

Cons:

  • somewhat coarse
  • prone to water damage

Slipper Satin

A tightly woven medium-to-heavy weight satin that is lighter in weight than a duchesse satin, but is typically used in wedding dresses and footwear due to its stiffer construction and fuller drape. This is one of the shiniest of satins.

Uses:

  • wedding gowns
  • formal dresses
  • shoes

Pros:

  • body
  • lighter than Duchesse satin

Cons:

  • dry clean only
  • unforgiving to mistakes and needle holes

Slub

A lump or nub in a yarn that is larger than the standard width of the yarn creating a bulge in the weave which then establishes an irregular knobbly appearance. Originally only featured on natural materials such as raw silk and linen until modern weaving technology made it easier to use synthetic fibers creating a more natural appearance.

Pros:

  • composition causes variance in dye yields
  • unique texture

Cons:

  • harder to dye the fabric a consistent color
  • prone to shrinkage
  • less stable than standard fabrics

Snakeskin

The material made from the skin of a snake when used in the making of clothing, button covers or shoes.

Uses:

  • vests
  • shoes
  • boots
  • accessories

Pros:

  • eye-catching
  • unique

Cons:

  • not as durable as other exotic hides
  • not very sustainable

Snap Closures

A form of closure similar in appearance to that of a button, but instead of a buttonhole, the construction uses two pieces that connect or "snap" together and use friction to hold their union together. First invented in 210 BC by the Qing dynasty in China for use in horse bridles, it was much later improved upon to become the modern snap closure we know today.

Uses:

  • closures

Pros:

  • strong
  • simple
  • effective

Cons:

  • difficult application to garments
  • can only hold against so much tension
  • are not self-locking

Solution Dyeing

A method of adding pigment to synthetic fibers, where the color is added when the polymer is in its liquid form, which is then pressed through spinnerets to create the synthetic fibers. The major benefit to solution dyeing is the colorfastness the process yields.

Pros:

  • excellent colorfastness
  • consistent color throughout fabric
  • stain resistance

Cons:

  • limited colorways
  • not commonly stocked

Solvent Dyeing

A method of adding pigment to fibers using natural, organic solvents or plastics to create a solution that is then used to add color in fabrics. Solvent dyeing is one of the most efficient and sustainable options, although rather expensive.

Pros:

  • dyes are often recycled
  • minimum energy requirement
  • good dye yield
  • non-toxic
  • non-flammable
  • non-corrosive
  • high wettability and dyeability
  • less time requirement

Cons:

  • higher production cost
  • low equipment availability
  • • dye can not be used in full range

Sorona

A brand of Triexta created by DuPont, Triexta being a copolymer derived from corn fibers that when combined with other polymers will yield a soft, strong, stiff, and stain resistant material.

Uses:

  • clothing
  • carpeting

Pros:

  • hydrophilic
  • non-static
  • good thermal conductivity
  • soft
  • resilient
  • good dimensional stability
  • wicking
  • antibacterial properties
  • sunlight resistant
  • biodegradable

Cons:

  • melts near a flame

Soufflé

A soft, sheer, lightweight warp-knit fabric, often used for costuming in the ballet and theatre. Gets its name from the French word for "a breath".

Uses:

  • costuming
  • corsetry
  • linings

Pros:

  • very light weight
  • •breathable

Cons:

  • very sheer
  • no real discernable thermal retention

Soy Fibers

Manufactured cellulose fibers derived from soybean cakes. The fiber on its own boasts the same properties of synthetic fabrics, but when blended with other fabrics can greatly increase strength, luster, absorbency, comfort, and reduce the shrinkage. A great fiber choice for sportswear, 18 amino acids are absorbed transdermally as well as having natural UV protection.

Uses:

  • sportswear
  • tops
  • skirts

Pros:

  • hydrophilic
  • non-static
  • good thermal conductivity
  • high tenacity
  • resilient
  • good dimensional stability
  • wicking
  • antibacterial properties

Cons:

  • poor elasticity
  • poor biological resistance

Spaghetti Cords

A form of narrow cord used to make shoulder straps for support in clothing. Often used in cocktail dresses and tank tops. Offering support via a thin strap over an otherwise bare shoulder, its name comes from the style of pasta of the same name.

Uses:

  • tank tops
  • evening gowns
  • swimwear

Spandex

An elastomeric fiber (a type of polyurethane) originally established during World War II, the synthetically made fiber was made as a substitute for rubber. The fiber can be stretched up to five times its original length without being damaged. The stretch fiber was produced in its early stages by a German scientist by the name of Farbenfabriken Bayer. It also goes by the names elastane and lycra.

Uses:

  • athletic wear
  • athleisure
  • bathing suits
  • fashion apparel
  • lingerie

Pros:

  • high elasticity
  • resists deterioration from perspiration and body oils

Cons:

  • wears over time
  • poor tenacity
  • poor abrasion resistance
  • heat sensitivity
  • bleach sensitivity

Speckled

A design characterized by marks or spots, often described as blemished.

Spikes

A three-dimensional, often conical embellishment typically made from metal and used to accent a garment, shoe, accessory, etc. first used in medival times as ways of striking fear into enemies and then returning to popularity in the 70s with the birth of the Punk movement, and later made a resurgence in mainstream fashion in the mid 2010s.

Spinning

The act of twisting staple fibers together, drawing out and twisting fibers into yarns that were to be used in the production of textiles. First believed to have been performed in the paleolithic era around 25,000 BCE, and has been performed since with increasing efficiency until 2000 CE where the spinning process became computerized.

Spun Rayon

A form of yarn entirely comprised of spun rayon staple fiber in order to simulate cotton or wool. Has a soft, fuzzy surface.

Uses:

  • clothing
  • draperies
  • bedspreads

Pros:

  • drapability
  • hydrophilic
  • anti-static
  • conducts heat away from the body
  • soft
  • dyes easily
  • resistant to moths
  • biodegradable

Cons:

  • poor recovery or resiliency
  • poor dimensional stability
  • poor tenacity
  • poor elasticity
  • shrinks and loses strength in water
  • susceptible to mold and mildew

Staple Fibers

A fairly short fiber that varies in length which can be stretched and spun into yarns, differing from a filament fiber due to the fact that a filament fiber is continuous whilst a staple fiber is often of a discrete length. Staple fibers come from sources including raw cotton, flax, wool, and hemp. The fibers are sorted by length and then used in the spinning process to create textiles.

Pros:

  • fuzzy surface

Cons:

  • prone to pilling
  • prone to wearing and distressing faster than filament fiber materials

Striated

A term used to describe fabrics that are intentionally given narrow linear marks, color effects or sheer portions.

Stripes

A line or long narrow section of color differing from the color of the background color. First used to denote criminals, by the end of the 19th century they were no longer seen as such when Queen Victoria dressed her son in a sailor suit boasting the design. Later, they gained more pop culture attention when movie stars in the 50s began sporting stripes and thus have become the tried and true staple pattern we all know today. Examples of stripe variations include but are not limited to awning stripes, barcode stripes, bengal stripes, candy stripes, chalk stripes, pencil stripes, pinstripes, regimental stripes, and shadow stripes.

Studs

A large-headed piece of metal that is secured by two arms which pierce through the material it is to be anchored to. First being used in ancient times, when Samurai, the Celts, and the Romans would add studs to their leather armor to provide additional protection. After centuries of use in armor, they found their way into the fashion world much like spikes did, with the birth of the Punk movement. To this day, they have been a staple in the counterculture wardrobe and recently the mainstream wardrobe as well.

Suede Leather

A type of leather with a napped finish most commonly used in shoes, gloves, jackets, shirts, and purses. The leather hide's flesh side is thoroughly rubbed to make a velvety nap. The term suede is derived from the French term "gants de suede" which translates to "gloves" from Sweden.

Uses:

  • shoes
  • bags
  • jackets
  • shirts
  • gloves

Pros:

  • soft
  • lightweight
  • elegant
  • resilient against most wear and tear

Cons:

  • not as durable as other leathers
  • prone to staining and damage due to its napped face
  • less durable than Nubuck

Suiting

The term used for the variety of fabrics used in the creation of the outer portion of suits. These materials include wool, worsted fabrics, tweed, sharkskin, and more.

Sulfar

A resilient and highly durable synthetic fabric made for industrial uses with high resistance to both heat and acids. First created in 1986 by the Phillips Fiber Corporation, this fibers fantastic resilience to various elements has led it to be used as a filter for various systems, as well as electrical insulation. This high-performance fiber retains its supreme strength, even in unfavorable conditions.

Uses:

  • protective garments
  • filters
  • electrical insulation

Pros:

  • resistant to heat
  • flame retardant
  • resistant to acids
  • resistant to alkalies
  • resistant to abrasion
  • resistant to mildew
  • resistant to sunlight
  • resistant to aging
  • resistant to bleaching

Cons:

  • nondyeable
  • resistant to bleach

Sunn

A bast fiber with hemp-like qualities derived from the inner bark of slender branches obtained from the Crotalaria Juncea plant. This natural fiber is resistant to mildew and increases in strength when wet. For these reasons, this material is used to create cloth for bags, as well as rope. The fiber is grown in East India and is a member of the legume family.

Uses:

  • bags
  • rope

Pros:

  • stronger when wet
  • resistant to mildew and moisture

Cons:

  • flammable in its raw state

Super Wools

A type of combed wool yarn used in a higher thread count to create suiting that has specified ratings known as S number. The ratings are given based on the diameter of the fibers within the yarns.

Uses:

  • suiting

Pros:

  • drapes well
  • wrinkle resistance
  • high quality
  • sleek

Cons:

  • duller supers tend to wear in shiny patches

Surah

A soft twill comprised of silk or rayon characterized by a soft, smooth and fine hand. Very similar to "foulard" but heavier.

Uses:

  • neckties
  • scarves
  • blouses
  • jacket
  • coat linings
  • cravats

Pros:

  • lightweight
  • lustrous
  • soft
  • flexible

Cons:

  • slippery when sewing
  • wrinkles easily
  • tendency to water spot

Suri Alpaca

Prized for its silk-like fibers, this breed of Alpaca has thin, almost dreadlocked fleece. In recent years they have been bred in a variety of colors. Historically, their coat was only used to create garments for those of royal descent, thus being thought of as rare.

Uses:

  • sweaters
  • jackets
  • scarves
  • hats
  • mittens

Pros:

  • soft
  • silky
  • insulating
  • lustrous
  • durable
  • hypoallergenic
  • water-repellent
  • thermal insulator
  • drapable

Cons:

  • hand wash and dry clean only
  • tendency to pill

Synthetic Fibers

Synthetic fibers are man-made fibers produced from polymers such as polyamide (nylon), polyester, aramid, or other spun thermoplastics through chemical synthesis. They are the result of scientific improvements and expansion on naturally occurring animal fibers and plant fibers. The word polymer refers to a chemical substance composed of molecules that form long repeating chains, a characteristic that is useful in synthetic fibers. Often derived from coal and petroleum. Synthetic fibers result in "wash-and-wear" or "easy care" fabrics. (see nylon, rayon, polyester, spandex, acrylic, and acetate)

Uses:

  • clothing
  • upholstery
  • shoemaking

Pros:

  • excellent environmental resistance
  • resistance to chemical reactivity
  • thermoplasticity
  • thermal retention
  • tenacity
  • abrasion resistance
  • hydrophobic
  • dimensional stability
  • resiliency
  • elasticity
  • drape

Cons:

  • oleophilic
  • hydrophobic
  • electrical retention
  • heat sensitivity